McMaster University’s Daily News reports that a new textbook, Essentials of Linguistics by Catherine Anderson, is now available as an Open Educational Resource!
Here you can read the textbook in full. It’s licensed under a CC-BY-SA license.
The language of one of the Star Wars franchise’s most enigmatic and powerful characters, the tiny green Jedi Master Yoda, has attracted a fair bit of attention from linguists due to its idiosyncrasies. A full review and bibliography of Yoda linguistics is beyond the scope of this blog post, but see for instance here, here and here.
Most people agree on the basic facts: what Yoda really likes to do is take a predicate or a verb phrase and stick it at the start of the clause. However, there is variation, and interesting nuances to be explored. As a service to the Yoda linguistics community I’ve collected all of Yoda’s lines from the movie and made them available here. Do what you want with them! (Of course, I make no claim to own Yoda or any of his utterances – more’s the pity.)
The format is tab-separated, with the line itself in the first column and a code for what movie it’s from in the second column. The sources are, in the following order:
With the prequel scripts, I’ve made some slight editorial tweaks to fix obvious typos and weird punctuation, but otherwise remained faithful. Yoda doesn’t appear in A New Hope or The Force Awakens.
The corpus itself can be found here.
Featured image: Yoda statue in California; photo from Wikimedia Commons, by GPS (CC-BY-SA 2.0).
This list aims to include all peer-reviewed platinum Open Access journals in general, descriptive, and theoretical linguistics, as long as they are open to submissions from anyone. Due to the fast-moving nature of the field it is likely to be constantly out of date. If you find that your favourite platinum journal is missing, that a link is broken, or that a detail is wrong, let us know on Twitter or by emailing George. The list was last updated in February 2019.
The list is built on the excellent work of Humans Who Read Grammars. It is in alphabetical order.
a journal devoted to the study of Asian languages, their translation and teaching.
Journal in African Studies and Egyptology from University of Cologne. Multilingual, abstracts are welcome in German, English, French, Arabic and larger African languages. Full articles only in German, English or French though.
French Journal of English Linguistics. Part of OpenEdition.
A journal of language sciences which aims to analyse the connexions between discourse analysis, rhetoric and argumentation. Part of OpenEdition.
Explores the biological foundations of language and appeals to linguists, philosophers, psychologists, biologists, neuroscientists, cognitive scientists, and researchers in related fields.
Journal for indigenous South American languages.
Web-based journal of the Association for French Language Studies.
French-language journal devoted to the study of the production and the circulation of meaning. Part of OpenEdition.
General linguistics journal supported by the Centre de Lingüística Teòrica of the UAB and the Institut Interuniversitari de Filologia Valenciana.
Journal of the French association for cognitive linguistics. Part of OpenEdition.
The longest-running publication devoted exclusively to the computational and mathematical properties of language and the design and analysis of natural language processing systems. Published by MIT Press.
A multimedia platform for linguistic research concerned with the structure, use, function, and development of ‘constructions’ in language and linguistics. Formerly part of eLanguage.
Journal of language science. Part of OpenEdition.
A journal promoting research in corpus linguistics at various levels, theoretical, methodological and epistemological. Part of OpenEdition.
Covers all research that advances our understanding of natural languages. Submissions in Spanish or English.
Deals with language “beyond the single sentence”, adopting an interdisciplinary perspective. Formerly part of eLanguage.
Études finno-ougriennes is the only academic journal in French in the field of Finno-Ugric studies. Part of OpenEdition.
Journal for all aspects of Finno-Ugric and Uralic languages.
Full financial support for this journal is provided by LingOA with long-term funding provided by the Open Library of Humanities (OLH). Sprung out of a disagreement between the linguists of Lingua and their publisher.
An annual publication containing articles and reviews on research carried out related to English-language corpora. Part of De Gruyter Open.
IEL is devoted to the study of the ancient and medieval Indo-European languages from the perspective of modern theoretical linguistics.
Journal of the Internationale Vereniging voor Neerlandistiek.
A journal on variation of Romance and Iberian languages.
The Journal of Ludovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics, SAV, Slovakia. Part of De Gruyter Open.
International journal from 1886 from the Finno-Ugrian Society.
Open access journal in the area of language, communication, and media(lity). Publishes articles in English and German.
Journal focusing on historical and diachronic studies of syntax. Formerly part of eLanguage.
Aims to bridge the gap between theoretical linguistics and natural language processing.
Journal of the Association of Portuguese and Spanish-Lexified Creoles.
The Journal of Portuguese Linguistics is concerned with all branches of linguistics and aims at publishing high-quality papers in the field of Portuguese linguistics, including the comparison between any varieties of Portuguese and any other language(s). Part of LingOA.
JSAL is devoted to the linguistic study of South Asia.
Journal of the Association for Laboratory Phonology. Part of LingOA.
Journal sponsored by the National Foreign Language Resource Center and published exclusively in electronic form by the University of Hawaiʻi Press.
Journal from Endangered Languages Publishing.
Previously known as Kivung. The journal of the Linguistics Society of Papua New Guinea.
French-language sociolinguistics journal. Part of OpenEdition.
The Journal of Poznan Society for the Advancement of the Arts and Sciences and Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Linguistics.
Journal supported by Dartmouth College.
LiLT focuses on relationships between linguistic insights, which can prove valuable to language technology, and language technology, which can enrich linguistic research. Formerly part of eLanguage.
Journal from the Estonian Academy of Sciences (Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia).
A well-established online-only generalist journal.
French-language general linguistics journal. Part of OpenEdition.
Journal in African studies from Nordic Association of African Studies. Articles welcome in English, French and Swahili.
Published by the Department of Language and Culture at UiT The Arctic University of Norway, and primarily features articles with some connection to UiT. Contributions are, however, welcome from others.
Published by the Department of Linguistics and Philology, Uppsala University. Adopts an open peer review model according to which the identity of the author(s) and the reviewers are known by all participants.
Published by the University of Edinburgh. Employs post-publication peer review.
Interdisciplinary journal for linguistics, literary, and cultural studies.
English literature and linguistics journal of the Charles University, Prague. Part of De Gruyter Open.
General linguistics journal. Part of OpenEdition.
General linguistics journal with an interdisciplinary focus. Part of De Gruyter Open.
(Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov) “The journal covers functional and socio-cognitive aspects of different languages and publishes a wide range of interdisciplinary studies that focus on the effect of sociocultural contexts on language development and use. This special approach allows the editors to publish research from a broad range of different linguistics subfields such as language and culture, comparative linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive linguistics, pragmatics, discourse analysis, intercultural communication, theory and practice of translation.”
Prolific and successful journal supported by the Linguistic Society of America. Formerly part of eLanguage.
Journal from the linguistic association of Finland. Articles welcome in English, French and German.
Tiny little articles. Published by LED Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto.
An international review of English studies, run from Adam Mickiewicz University.
An offshoot of Studia Orientalia published by the Finnish Oriental Society. Accepts original research articles and reviews in all fields of Asian and African studies.
SAL’s goal is to provide a public forum within the community of African language scholars for discourse on issues of direct concern to the field of African linguistics. Formerly part of eLanguage.
French-language journal. Part of OpenEdition.
Language variation in the Netherlands, Flanders and related languages/areas.
Based at the Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Chengchi University. The language of publication is English.
Journal of the Linguistic Society of New Zealand. Accepts submissions from scholars all over the world and in any subfield.
Run by the Department of English and American Studies, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra. Part of De Gruyter Open.
An ACL-sponsored journal that publishes papers in all areas of computational linguistics and natural language processing.
French-language journal. Part of OpenEdition.
Journal of of Adam Mickiewicz University. Part of De Gruyter Open.
The journal of the German Linguistics Society (DGfS). Covers all aspects of linguistics.
As of today (1st July), the Historical Syntax section of Language is now an independent journal!
The new Journal of Historical Syntax is fully Gold Open Access, with no charge to either authors or readers (sometimes called “platinum” or “diamond” OA). Alongside full-length peer-reviewed articles and squibs, the new journal will also host book reviews. It’s hosted by KIM at the University of Konstanz.
Caitlin Light has stepped down as editor, and the board would like to thank her for her hard work in managing submissions and raising the journal’s profile, as well as wishing her all the best for the future. George Walkden (AKA me) will carry on as editor-in-chief. Lauren Fonteyn (University of Manchester) and Marieke Meelen (University of Cambridge) are stepping up as editors, and Moreno Mitrović and Christina Sevdali have joined the advisory board.
The existing section of Language has closed its doors to new submissions, but there are still a number of papers in the pipeline, so keep an eye out there too! Once the one-year embargo has passed, all papers from Language will be republished on the new site, with the authors’ permission. All the old content from the journal’s 2011-2013 incarnation has been republished there as well. We’d like to thank the LSA, and in particular Greg Carlson and Andries Coetzee, for all their help and support over the years.
Our mission stays the same: to publish theoretically-informed and philologically rigorous papers in diachronic and historical syntax, with no bias as to framework. If you have any questions, or are thinking of submitting a paper, contact George, Lauren or Marieke or pester us on Twitter or Facebook and we’ll get right back to you!
Brill Publishers are not just a long-established linguistics publisher – they’ve also demonstrated in recent years that they’re ahead of the game, by spearheading the charge towards Open Access in journal publishing. Brill has now partnered with rapidly-growing new kid on the block ScienceOpen to share content from three of its journals: the no-fees Gold OA journal Indo-European Linguistics, the Gold OA Journal of Greek Linguistics, and the sporadically OA Language Dynamics and Change.
One to watch is the new initiative Open Handbooks in Linguistics. From their blurb: “We consider the open access publishing model to be especially important for handbooks for the following reasons:
I think academic books should be free.
It’s not a radically new proposal, but I’d like to clarify what I mean by “free”. First, there’s the financial sense: books should be free in that there should be no cost to either the author or the reader. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, books should be free in terms of what the reader can do with them: copying, sharing, creating derivative works, and more.
I’m not going to go down the murky road of what exactly a modern academic book actually is. I’m just going to take it for granted that there is such a thing, and that it will continue to have a niche in the scholarly ecosystem of the future, even if it doesn’t have the pre-eminent role it has at present in some disciplines, or even the same form and structure. (For instance, I’d be pretty keen to see an academic monograph written in Choose Your Own Adventure style.)
Another thing I’ll be assuming is that technology does change things, even if we’re rather it didn’t. If you’re reluctant to accept that, I’d like to point you to what happened with yellow pages. Or take a look at the University of Manchester’s premier catering space, Christie’s Bistro. Formerly a science library, this imposing chamber retains its bookshelves, which are all packed full of books that have no conceivable use to man or beast: multi-volume indexes of mid-20th-century scientific periodicals, for instance. In this day and age, print is still very much alive, but at the same time the effects of technological change aren’t hard to spot.
With those assumptions in place, then, let’s move on to thinking about the academic book of the future. To do that I’m going to start with the academic book of the past, so let’s rewind time by three centuries. In 1710, the world’s first copyright law, the UK’s Statute of Anne, was passed. This law was a direct consequence of the introduction and spread of the printing press, and the businesses that had sprung up around it. Publishers such as the rapacious Andrew Millar had taken to seizing on texts that, even now, could hardly be argued to be anything other than public-domain: for instance, Livy’s History of Rome. (Titus Livius died in AD 17.) What’s more, they then claimed an exclusive right to publish such texts – a right that extended into perpetuity. This perpetual version of copyright was based on the philosopher John Locke’s theory of property as a natural right. Locke himself was fiercely opposed to this interpretation of his work, but that didn’t dissuade the publishers, who saw the opportunity to make a quick buck (as well as a slow one).
Fortunately, the idea of perpetual copyright was defeated in the courts in 1774, in the landmark Donaldson v. Becket case. It’s reared its ugly head since, of course, for instance when the US was preparing its 1998 Copyright Term Extension Act: it was mentioned that the musician Sonny Bono believed that copyright should last forever (see also this execrable New York Times op-ed). What’s interesting is that this proposal was challenged at the time, by Edinburgh-based publisher Alexander Donaldson – and, for his efforts to make knowledge more widely available, Donaldson was labelled a “pirate”. The term has survived, and is now used – for instance – to describe those scientists who try to access paywalled research articles using the hashtag #ICanHazPDF, and those scientists who help them. What these people have in common with the cannon-firing, hook-toting, parrot-bearing sailors of the seven seas is not particularly clear, but it’s clearly high time that the term was reclaimed.
If you’re interested in the 18th century and its copyright trials and tribulations, I’d encourage you to take a look at Yamada Shōji’s excellent 2012 book “Pirate” Publishing: the Battle over Perpetual Copyright in eighteenth-century Britain, which, appropriately, is available online under a CC-BY-NC-ND license. And lest you think that this is a Whiggish interpretation of history, let me point out that contemporaries saw things in exactly the same way. The political economist Adam Smith, in his seminal work The Wealth of Nations, pointed out that, before the invention of printing, the goal of an academic writer was simply “communicating to other people the curious and useful knowledge which he had acquired himself“. Printing changed things.
Let’s come back to the present. In the present, academic authors make almost nothing from their work: royalties from monographs are a pittance. Meanwhile, it’s an economic truism that each electronic copy made of a work – at a cost of essentially nothing – increases total societal wealth. (This is one of the reasons that intellectual property is not real property.) What academic authors want is readership and recognition: they aren’t after the money, and don’t, for the most part, care about sales. The bizarre part is that they’re punished for trying to increase wealth and readership by the very organizations that supposedly exist to help them increase wealth and readership. Elsevier, for instance, filed a complaint earlier this year against the knowledge sharing site Sci-Hub.org, demanding compensation. It beggars belief that they have the audacity to do this, especially given their insane 37% profit margin in 2014.
So we can see that publishers, when profit-motivated, have interests that run counter to those of academics themselves. And, when we look at the actions of eighteenth-century publishers such as Millar, we can see that this is nothing new. Where does this leave us for the future? Here’s a brief sketch:
How far are we down this road? Not far enough; but if you’re a linguist, take a look at Language Science Press, if you haven’t already.
In conclusion, then, for-profit publishers should be afraid. If they can’t do their job, then academics will. Libraries will. Mission-oriented publishers will. Pirates will.
It’s sometimes said that “information wants to be free”. This is false: information doesn’t have agency. But if we want information to be free, and take steps in that direction… well, it’s a start.